Discourse Analysis

Discourse Analysis

Discourse Analysis to solve the  given exercises

Exercise 1.1 : Consider the following definitions of discourse analysis

Discourse analysis examines how stretches of language, considered in their textual, social, and psychological context, become meaningful and unified for their users.

Linguistics analysis is the logical investigation of language and includes an examination of language frame, language meaning and language in setting. It grasps both spellbindingly and generally the major characteristics, for example,

Phonetics — the investigation of the physical properties of discourse sound generation and observation.

Phonology — the investigation of sounds as dynamic components in the speaker’s mind that recognize meaning (Phoneme).

Morphology — the investigation of morphemes, or the inside structures of words and how they can be altered.

Semantics — the investigation of the importance of words (lexical semantics) and settled word mixes (diction) and how these consolidate to frame the implications of sentences.

Pragmatics — the investigation of how articulations are utilized in informative acts and the pretended by setting and non-etymological learning in the transmission of significance. (ELT, 2017)


Exercise 1.2

On the basis of the Paltridge (2012) and Kryk-Kastovsky (2006) readings (possibly also McCarthy (1991)), describe the crossover between the disciplines of discourse analysis and pragmatics and discuss the applicability of discourse analysis and pragmatic theories in language learning and teaching

The crossover between the disciplines of discourse analysis and pragmatics

Discourse analysis is the separating of discourse and examining it for its importance, capacity, and structure. Pragmatics and discourse (verbal discourse) are interlaced and is a communication between or among people dependent on commonality of culture, recognitions and convention. Language itself is gotten from and interrelated with social factors that are found out from your condition and from your way of life. This is to frequently isolate out parts of pragmatics’ and language to examine them, however they are profoundly synergistic & complex.

The application of Pragmatics & discourse investigation is the most conspicuous job in creating advanced discourse, and in this manner one that requires much consideration with respect to educators and students is that of words and expressions which flag inward connection of areas of discourse, to be specific conjunctions. McCarthy (1991) claims that there are in excess of forty conjunctive words and expressions, which may be hard to educate. Besides, with regards to the discoursed type of language, where and, yet, along these lines, at that point are most regular, they may take more than one significance, which is especially valid for and. Moreover, they not just add to the union of the content, but on the other hand are utilized when a member of a discussion goes ahead to address connect his expression to what has been said previously.

One other noteworthy application made by discourse experts for the utilization of vocabulary is seeing the inescapability and random habits of communicating methodology. In opposition to prevalent thinking that it is passed on primarily by utilization of modular action words it has been demonstrated that in normal discourse it is significantly more much of the time conveyed by words and expressions which may not be incorporated into the classification of modular action words, yet, convey modular importance. Lexical things of methodology educate the member of discourse not just about the mentality of the creator to the topic being referred to however they likewise give data about duty, affirmation, uncertainty (McCarthy 1991:85).

Exercise 1.3

Consider the grammar-oriented learning tasks in Appendix 1.1. Which ones address text from syntactic level and which from discourse level?

The level of sentences is addressed as text from syntactic level and the level of textual, social, and psychological context are from discourse analysis level.

Exercise 2.1

Consider the ways that you construct your own identity with different groups of people. Do you present yourself exactly in the same ways, or reveal exactly the same sets of aspects to your identity in every situation? How might the different situations allow you to construct different aspect of your identity?

The ways to construct own identity is the phenomenon of language identity by which it may create the sets of identity in every situation.

On the other hand, there are some different situation to learn or know other languages to handle some different situations as for communication perspective. It could be explained as discourse analysis approach additionally prompts more prominent composition flexibility, as understudy essayists are uncovered deliberately to an assortment of composed classifications, or sorts of composed talk. Every sort displays an alternate arrangement of logical decisions—from vocabulary and language structure to configuration, substance, and association—that understudies can study and adjust to their very own composition. Since societies use types to achieve their social associations, talk examination gives a window on the qualities and needs of the network that made them. In addition, the job of talk examiner offers a more ground-breaking personality for an ESL understudy than that of outsider, outsider, or nonnative speaker.

Exercise 3.1

Explain the significance of the establishment of common ground on the basis of Language teaching context

The significance of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) are to be found in the adjustments in the British language training custom dating from the late 1960s. Up to that point, Situational Language spoke to the real British way to deal with showing English as a remote language. In Situational Language Teaching, language was instructed by rehearsing fundamental structures in significant circumstance based exercises.

English connected etymologists underscored another key element of language that was insufficiently tended to in current ways to deal with language instructing around then – the practical and open capability of language. They saw the need to concentrate in language educating on informative capability as opposed to on insignificant dominance of structures.

Another driving force for various ways to deal with remote language instructing originated from changing instructive substances in Europe. With the expanding relationship of European nations came the requirement for more prominent endeavors to show grown-ups the real languages of the European Common Market and the Council of Europe, a territorial association for social and instructive collaboration. Instruction was one of the Council of Europe’s significant regions of action. It supported global meetings on lan­guage instructing, distributed monographs and books about language educating. The need to express and create elective strategies for language instructing was viewed as a high need.

To examine the likelihood of creating language seminars on a unit-credit framework, a framework in which learning undertakings are separated into “segments or units, every one of which compares to a segment of a student’s needs and is efficiently identified with the various parts” (van Ek and Alexander 1980: 6). The gathering utilized investigations of the necessities of European language students, and specifically a fundamental archive arranged by a British language specialist, D. A. Wilkins (1972), which proposed a useful or open defi­nition of language that could fill in as a reason for creating commu­nicative schedules for language instructing. Wilkins’ commitment was an examination of the open implications that a language student needs to comprehend and express. As opposed to portray the center of language through conventional ideas of sentence structure and vocabulary, Wilkins endeavored to exhibit the frameworks of implications that lay behind the informative employments of language.

Exercise 3.2

Dear sir or Madam is used addressed the person about a specific thing.

The ideas of value affirmation and quality administration are progressively being connected to language guidance at worldwide dimensions. Fitness in language learning itself has been recognized by the European Union as a key marker of value in training, and in Spain, national arrangement creators have called for examination into the improvement of value designs in the instructing and learning of outside languages (MECD, 2001a; 2003). Albeit quality, with its current multi-faceted appearances, is a moderately new advancement, it in no way, shape or form involves totally new ways to deal with the advancement of increasingly successful educating and learning. The scan for enhancing models in territories, for example, instructor training, academic information, classroom procedures, and student execution has existed well before the globalized appropriation of cutting edge quality ideal models. Be that as it may, the present spotlight on quality as an instrument of progress and control has as of late become the overwhelming focus in instructive strategies and practices. The point of this examination is to look at quality issues in English language educating (ELT) and other related fields and to discover an accord on what comprises quality in this branch of knowledge in the explicit setting of auxiliary school guidance in southern Spain. Two overviews of key partners in ELT were done in the region of Granada, in the principal case to recognize, and in the second, to approve a progression of value markers for this zone. The planned result of this procedure is the advancement of a progression of illustrative pointers which, while not generalizable, might be specifically utilized by language divisions so as to evaluate contextualized input factors, procedures and results with a view to encouraging the recognizable proof, prioritization and upgrade of key regions of enhancement.

Exercise 4.1

The dog is barking —— the illocutionary point of it is that the dog is barking implies that the when some strangers are seen, then the dog is barking that means it presents the illusion of strangers.

The phone is ringing ———– the illocutionary point is that someone is calling in ones phone to say something and that means it shows presence of another voice from the other corner of the phone.

Steve does not work in the kitchen ———– the illocutionary point is that Steve works in other place but not in kitchen and that means it shows the illusionary presence of working in other areas except kitchen.

Fred will not be attending the meeting ———– the illocutionary point is that Fred will be remained busy in other tasks and that means it shows the presence of his busyness in other context.

Exercise 4.2

Which of the following are performative?

You are prohibited from driving on their premises

The justification of it being performative act is that prohibition is act of someone imposed to other and here I have been prohibited from driving on their premises and its is the act of performance by their specific laws or rules to drive in their premises.

I moved that we discussed this issue now.

The justification of it being performative act is that discussion is the act of communication and here the discussion on the issues is the performance as I am moving to discuss now.

I may resign from my position at this office

The justification of it being performative act is that resign is the form of stopping the act of performance and here I have the right to take resign from the work and stopping my work and it is included in the performance act.

He authorized you to receive her mail

The justification of it being performative act is that getting an authority from the position is the aspect of performance and tin that case the performance act is to receive as well as deal with the received email is the performance act for me.

I fine you 200 dollars for parking here

The justification of it being performative act is that fine is the performance act when there is seen someone is breaking the rules and that means it shows the visibility of performance act by the use of laws due to parking car in prohibited areas.

Exercise 4.3

Discuss difficulties that a second language learner may experience in recognising indirect speech acts

Difficulties that a second language learner may experience in recognizing indirect speech acts

Showing English as an outside or second language that goes for giving students a way to impart adequately, all things considered, circumstance can’t be confined to ingraining phonetic skill, yet in addition needs to think about the student’s requirement for obtaining of down to business capability, and along these lines, will sensibly give contact the way of life identified with the language (Rathert, 2013). Even minded skill is the capacity to utilize language shapes in an extensive variety of conditions, calculating in the connection between the speakers included and the social and social setting of the circumstance (Lightbrown, 2001). Speakers who might be considered “familiar” in a second language because of their dominance of the syntax and vocabulary of the language may in any case need commonsense ability; at the end of the day, they may in any case be not able create language that is socially and socially appropriate. With the advancement of the connected etymology, an ever increasing number of instructor’s center around the connection among pragmatics and language educating. Discourse act hypothesis, the principal significant hypothesis in pragmatics, was at first proposed during the 1950s and broadly examined during the 1970s. Cohen (1996) claims the way that discourse analysis demonstration reflect fairly routinized language conduct helps learning as in quite a bit of what is said is unsurprising. However, when second language students participate in discussions with local speakers, troubles may emerge because of their absence of dominance of the conversational standards associated with the creation of discourse acts (Gumperz, 1990). At the point when the nonnative speakers abuse discourse act acknowledgment designs commonly utilized by local speakers of an objective language, they frequently endure the perpetual danger of accidentally disregarding conversational (and neighborliness) standards in this manner relinquishing their cases to being treated by their intercalants as social equivalents (Kasper, 1990)

Exercise 5.1

Barraja-Rohan and Pritchard place emphasis on the overall structure of a conversation in Unit 1, in particular on openings and closings. Paltridge (2012), Finegan et al. (1997) also discuss these as more routinised aspects of conversational structure.

Therefore, these aspects might be more ‘teachable’ than other features of conversation because communicative teaching is more beneficial as it helps to learn through communication by using communication strategy.

The communicative method accurately characterizes destinations headed by free correspondence through discussion, perusing, listening appreciation and composing. For those points, the communicative method utilizes contemporary components of tele-, radio correspondence, and so on which are normal in the realm of trading data. In any case, a book remains the primary however not by any means the only device of dialect learning at school. A teacher can pick any book which compares to his/her motivations and characterizes his/her methodological methodology towards language teaching. Be that as it may, a book ought to be both intriguing and available for understudies. A reading material should help taking in the dialect, yet not give fascinating or exhausting realities about it. Then again, even the most appealing course reading won’t give any outcomes, if its substance (drills, works out, rules, and so forth.) are isolated from the open learning with the assistance of an instructor as an expert guide. An English language teacher must realize English and additionally his native language. The teacher must know about the laws as per which dialect capacities. The instructor must be familiar with the last methodological perspectives, however he isn’t to be obliged to secure those in the event that they don’t adjust to his motivations and points. The teacher should realize the distinction between general semantics and instructive phonetics all together not to change over exercises at school to linguistic classes.

Exercise 5.2

Consider the usefulness or otherwise of the concept of preference organisation in the teaching of a second language, in particular the concept of dispreferred responses. Use your prescribed text and readings to support your argument

One progressively essential point was that whether dispreferred seconds had been properly checked or  seemed plain, all writings needed one thing in like manner; there was almost no clarification on what kinds of reactions were favored, and what types dispreferred; nor was there any record with respect to the creator to point out the understudies’ components working as dispreferred markers, their impact, and the explanation behind their essence in a specific setting. The outcome is that for understudies utilizing such messages, the obligation rests upon them and their educator for understanding that an inclination framework exists when an individual answer to questions, solicitations, and solicitations of another member in the discussion. Be that as it may, this isn’t the way it ought to be. Tragically regardless of whether the instructor wishes to disclose this to her class, she is without anyone else; neither the book nor the educator’s manual reveals to her what she has to know so as to portray such turns precisely

Exercise 6.1

Is the use of abbreviations in texting a new linguistics phenomenon?


In the realm of delivery people and visit rooms, the utilization of Internet truncations is as normal as observing another selfie creator at the road. By one way or another these appealing shorthand words have developed into the entire new dialect utilized by twenty to thirty year olds and Gen Zers.

As basic as it may be, individuals have begun contracting words because of the predetermined number of characters allowed in a solitary message or tweet. Until 2017, one tweet could incorporate close to 140 characters and 20 characters for a username. This number multiplied to 280 characters, yet the custom to curtail is as yet a pattern nowadays. Individuals need to spare their endeavors and time for composing particularly when it’s made in a hurry. Plus, one reason to utilize shorthand in messaging is the quickened life pace which makes us state or accomplish more in less reality. Individuals quit utilizing long excellent change words or expressions like by and by, despite the way that since it takes an excessive number of taps to think of them. Henceforth, the second reason is basically human’s lethargy and eagerness to type full words. All things considered, it isn’t so much that awful on the grounds that inertness has been a motor of advancement for a long time. The shorthand correspondence can be contrasted with an explicit mystery dialect code between clients in various online visits, internet based life, texting administrations like Skype, WhatsApp, Telegram, Facebook Messenger, and so forth. This shortened form code is likewise an ideal method to shield balanced discussion from somebody’s interruption. (Funny, 2018)

Exercise 7.1

Carefully read the Swales (especially sections 7.4–7.6) and Golebiowski (1999) readings, paying close attention to the analytical procedures described

This paper reports the examination of the hierarchical structure of starting areas of research papers composed by Polish creators in English and Polish. The point of the examination was to test whether in perspective of social contrasts, reflected in the Anglo-American and Polish scholarly styles, the logical example of research papers would shift between the two societies. The chose writings were investigated as far as Swales’ Creating a Research Space (CARS) show (Swales 1990). On use of the model in the examination of articles from the English corpus, it was discovered that it must be utilized in extremely nonexclusive terms. The examination of the Polish corpus uncovered that the variety between Anglo-American and Polish schematic examples was too noteworthy to even think about justifying the execution of the equivalent analytical apparatus. (Adika, 2014)

Move 1: Establishing a Territory [the situation]

This is commonly practiced in two different ways: by exhibiting that a general zone of research is essential, basic, intriguing, tricky, pertinent, or generally deserving of examination and by presenting and looking into key wellsprings of earlier research here to indicate where holes exist or where earlier research has been lacking in tending to the exploration issue.

Step 1 – Claiming significance of, as well as [writing activity = depicting the exploration issue and giving proof to help why the subject is vital to study]

Step 2 – Making point speculations, as well as [writing activity = giving proclamations about the present condition of information, accord, practice or depiction of phenomena]

Step 3 – Reviewing things of past research [writing activity = orchestrate earlier research that further backings the need to think about the examination issue; this isn’t a writing survey yet more an impression of key investigations that have contacted upon however maybe not completely tended to the topic]

Move 2: Establishing a Niche [the problem]

This activity alludes to making an unmistakable and pertinent contention that your specific bit of research is imperative and has esteem. This should be possible by showing an explicit hole in past research, by testing a comprehensively acknowledged presumption, by bringing up an issue, a theory, or require, or by expanding past learning somehow or another.

Step 1a – Counter-guaranteeing, or [writing activity = present a contradicting perspective or viewpoint or recognize a hole in earlier research that you accept has debilitated or undermined the predominant argument]

Step 1b – Indicating a hole, or [writing activity = build up the exploration issue around a hole or understudied region of the literature]

Step 1c – Question-raising, or [writing activity = like hole distinguishing proof, this includes introducing key inquiries concerning the outcomes of holes in earlier research that will be tended to by your examination. For instance, one could state, “Notwithstanding earlier perceptions of voter conduct in neighborhood decisions in urban Detroit, it stays misty for what reason do some single parents decide to avoid….”]

Step 1d – Continuing a convention [writing activity = stretch out earlier research to develop or clear up an exploration issue. This is regularly motioned with coherent interfacing wording, for example, “henceforth,” “along these lines,” “therefore,” “in this way” or dialect that shows a need. For instance, one could state, “Thus, these variables need to analyzed in more detail….” or “Proof proposes a fascinating connection, hence, it is attractive to overview distinctive respondents….”]

Move 3: Occupying the Niche [the solution]

The last “move” is to declare the methods by which your examination will contribute new information or new comprehension as opposed to earlier research on the point. This is additionally where you depict the staying hierarchical structure of the paper.

The means taken to accomplish this would be:

Step 1a – Outlining purposes, or [writing activity = noting the “So What?” question. Clarify in clear dialect the targets of your study]

Step 1b – Announcing present research [writing activity = portray the reason for your investigation as far as what the examination will do or achieve. In the sociologies, the “So What?” question still needs to addressed]

Step 2 – Announcing guideline discoveries [writing activity = present a short, general synopsis of key discoveries composed, for example, “The discoveries demonstrate a need for…,” or “The exploration proposes four methodologies to….”]

Step 3 – Indicating article structure [writing activity = state how the rest of your paper is organized]

Exercise 7.2

Consider the analysis carried out in Exercise 7.1. Comment on the usefulness of Swales model in the ESL pedagogy

Usefulness of Swales model in the ESL pedagogy

  1. compare and contrast (discourse) features of the three texts.
  2. discuss how to improve the texts to make them more effective and get a better response.
  3. evaluate the appropriateness of various rewordings

Discourse Analysis


Adika, G. S., 2014. Swales’ Cars Model and the Metaphor of Research Space: An illustration with an African Journal. African Journal, 4(1), pp. 01-10.

ELT, 2017. Discourse Analysis and Language Teaching. [Online]

Flowerdrew, J., 2015. ohn Swales’s approach to pedagogy in Genre Analysis: A perspective from 25 years on. Journal of English for Academic Purpose, 30(3), pp. 01-11.

Funny, 2018. The Most Used Internet Abbreviations for Texting and Tweeting is Discourse Analysis. [Online]

Hadhi, P., 2013. Speech Act in English Language Teaching (ELT). Language Journal, pp. 01-19.

Hughes, S. P., 2007. The identification of quality indicators in English language teaching.. English language teaching, pp. 225-240.

Mirsaeedi, S. M. a. A., 2012. Application of Levinson’s Concept of Dispreferred Seconds to the Review ofIran’s High School English Textbooks. International Conference on Economics Marketing and Management, Volume 28, pp. 235-242.

Semistraitis, L., 2003. Peculiarities of the Communicative Approach. Communicative Teaching, Discourse Analysis 2(1), pp. 01-12.

Swales, 2015. Organizing Social Sciences Research Paper: The C.A.R.S. Model. social sciences, pp. 01-11.

Vobs, 2012. Discourse Analysis: Communicative Language Teaching. [Online]

Written by

Md. Shadequr Rahaman

Email: [email protected]

Discourse Analysis

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