Domestic Violence on Women


Domestic Violence on women and how it can be addressed


Domestic violence is an international issue that cuts beyond country borders and economic, social, ethnic, cultural, and political divides. This dilemma is geographically widespread, but it often occurs, rendering it a regular and recognized practice. Domestic violence on women is prevalent, firmly embedded, and has significant health and well-being consequences for women. It’s ethically unacceptable to keep it going. Peoples, healthcare institutions, and the community all pay a high price for it. No other significant public health issue, on the other hand, has been so extensively neglected and misunderstood. It harms female’s physical and emotional health, as well as their sexual and reproductive health. Injuries, gynecological issues, permanent or temporary impairments, anxiety, and homicide are just a few examples. An appropriate solution to such violence should be multi-sectoral, discussing the apparent practical suffering of women who have been abused, constantly reviewing join and guidance, and concentrating on modifying social practices, perceptions, and regulatory frameworks that advertise and even inspire discrimination against women, undermining women’s maximum benefit of their fundamental rights and dignity. As a result, solutions to these problems should be defined as an overall perspective. The consistency and collaboration responsible for the planning and effectiveness of interventions and activities will determine their efficacy. Domestic violence should be revealed and evaluated like any other avoidable health condition, with the best possible solutions implemented.

Chapter 1: Introduction and background

Research Background on Domestic Violence on Women

Domestic abuse is a global problem that cuts beyond national borders and financial, regional, ethnic, and socioeconomic divides. This dilemma would be not only joint globally, and it also occurs often, creating it a standard and recognized practice. Domestic abuse is prevalent, firmly rooted, and has significant medical and welfare consequences for women. It’s ethically unacceptable to keep it going. People, healthcare institutions, and the community all pay a high price for it. Almost no significant public health issue, on the other hand, has been so extensively neglected and misunderstood (Kaur & Garg, 2008). Domestic Violence is a major worldwide public health issue that affects people in every country.

Sexual or physical assault, mental torture, and harassments by intimate partners are examples of domestic violence. Around 10% and 69 per cent of women claimed that they were suffering violently threatened by an abusive partner at a particular time in their life in 48 inhabitants research from across the globe. For most of these women, violent abuse was part of a continuous habit of unethical conduct (Matud, 2007). The World Health Organization lately performed research on Domestic Violence against women and women’s issues wherein 24,000 women were questioned at 15 distinct places in ten various nations with varying geographies, cultures, and economies. Even though the circumstances differed considerably between and within countries, the findings show that male companions’ Violence against women is prevalent (B., 2016). In the Daphne III Curriculum, the European Commission stated that domestic violence has affected one out of every four women in European union member states, and also that the effect of domestic Violence on sufferers contains several severe implications, including low self-esteem, embarrassment, and shame, troubles conveying ill thoughts, loss of hope and frustration, all of which cause difficulty employing great strategies to cope and self-management (Rolle, Ramon, et al., 2019). Though its specific description of domestic violence and its association with an increased incidence are evaluated have a role in determining its scope, numerous researches have indicated that women are more likely than males to be victims of intimate partner abuse.

Furthermore, women who were sufferers of this assault reported more dangerous situations and suffering than males. Domestic abuse has both patients with chronic physical and psychological repercussions. Male friend aggression has been linked to depression in women in various nations, including depressive disorders, despair, and suicide attempts (Semahegn & Mengistie, 2015). Behavioural and cognitive issues have also been discovered to impact these youngsters across puberty and maturity. Domestic Violence is linked to communal Violence as well as relationship abuse. However, other findings show that family and school abuse memories are associated with a higher likelihood of relationship assault than interfamily assault exposures. Male domestic violence has been linked to psychiatric disorders in women in various nations, including depressive disorders, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts. Mature domestic Violence is related to child maltreatment, and studies show that people who are exposed or observers of domestic Violence have more significant personal and psychological difficulties than children who are not. Several studies have indicated that access to familial abuse is linked to domestic Violence and views that condone Violence, such as when it is seen as an acceptable method of resolving relationship conflicts. There is conflicting evidence for developmental trajectories of crime, and some gender disparities have been discovered (Stover, 2005).

Research Aims and Objectives

Female Violence is now generally identified as a vital violation of human rights and a significant public health issue with substantial ramifications for physical, emotional, sexually, and women’s healthcare. To enable program and policy decisions, research on a comprehensive evaluation of domestic Violence is required. This argument’s goal leads to particular essential aims that must be examined. They are as follows:

  • To investigate the incidence of domestic violence committed by partners towards married women in a remote county and the demographic variables that influence it.
  • To investigate the incidence and types of domestic abuse committed towards married women by partners.
  • To investigate the economic and educational variables that impact the number of women victims of domestic abuse.
  • The reason for this research is to look at the incidence of urinary tract infections and their link to domestic Violence in the participants (Gaikwad, Madhukumar, et al., 2011).

Research Questions on Domestic Violence on Women

The research questions for domestic Violence are given below:

  1. What is Domestic Violence?
  2. Who are the primary victims?
  3. How does domestic violence affect society?
  4. What are the causes of Domestic Violence?
  5. How can domestic violence be addressed?

Research rationale

The research examines women’s experiences in social interactions in different regions as they proceed to be domestically abused, intending to identify more feasible, cautious when choosing, actual worth organizationally formatted, and legally permissible ways to handle domestic violence on women. Women are the subject of this research, which covers selected villages in different regions of the world. As a result, the study will concentrate on both males and girls over the age of 18, emphasizing females. The research anticipates that many teenagers will start to form patterns throughout their teenage period and experiment with how society operates in various sorts of interactions. Such practices will create an atmosphere for their upcoming partnerships. When these patterns become entrenched, people must be taught about domestic violence and how to respond to it. The research also feels that by starting a conversation on criminal behaviour, teenagers would be able to explore what is acceptable conduct in their situations; people will address what they need, how they honour, and how to resolve a scenario that begins to indicate signs of Violence. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the data and report the report’s conclusions. The findings have been organized into sections that correspond to the study’s goals. The information gathered in the research was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively.

Chapter 2: Literature Review on Domestic Violence on Women

Primary Victims of Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence can occur in every relationship, irrespective of race, socioeconomic status, religious affiliation, educational attainment, or sexual preference (Alejo, 2014). Violence may arise among married individuals and between single people who live together or are engaged. In straight, homosexual, and bisexual partnerships, it occurs. According to Martin R. Huecker and his research team, though anybody can be abused, women seem to be the more common victims, and males are the most common perpetrators. Domestic violence victims may make it challenging to admit that they are being abused, mainly whenever the Violence is not physically but rather mental or emotional (King, Jordan, et al., 2021). According to Canada, the primary victims of domestic violence are:

  • Domestic Violence puts more than 100,000 individuals in the UK in danger of becoming killed or badly wounded every year.
  • Every year, Marac conferences in England and Wales address the plight of 50,000 high-risk women and 70,000 children. And over 90% of the victims are female, with about 5-10% being male. Furthermore, 15% of the population is black, Asian, or of a minorities ethnicity. In addition, 4% of the population is handicapped. Homosexuals, bisexuals, and transgender people make up 1% of the population (Evans, Lindauer, et al., 2020).

Wallaby and Allen stated that there are some characteristics of victims who are getting assaulted. They are:

  • Women are far more than males to be sufferers of extensive or chronic domestic abuse. For example, 95 per cent of victims are female.
  • Limited wage: Females in families earning just under £10,000 were 3.5 times more likely to be pregnant than those in families making more than £20,000.
  • Physical abuse is more likely to appear among younger persons. A vast lot of successful victims are in their twenties and thirties. Physical abuse is most common among those under 25 (Ogbe, Harmon, et al., 2020).
  • Pregnancy: Almost one-third of women who have experienced domestic violence in their lifespan say the first incident occurred when they were pregnant.
  • Divergence: Some who have divided are more likely to experience domestic abuse than someone divorced or alone.
  • Domestic Violence is more prevalent when the abuser has a past prior record.
  • Victims of abuse have such a faster level of drug and alcohol overuse. Minimum 20% of increased abused women report taking drugs and alcohol.
  • Psychological medical problems: Psychological problems are reported by 40% of high-risk victims of sexual assault (Hussain, Loxton, et al., 2013).

Domestic Violence Affects in the Society

Most people believe domestic abuse is a personal, family problem, and they opt not to intervene. Domestic Violence, on the other hand, has unexpected consequences for society. According to Amy, the domestic abuse system of representation is in October, and it’s an excellent opportunity to attract it out of the darkness (Ellison, 2015). Domestic abuse rips the foundation of society apart by destroying family groups and generating a cascade of consequences that last for years. The damage that domestic violence does to family ties is one of the most long-lasting repercussions. When children experience violence towards their parents, it might be challenging for them to believe in people in the future. It weakens the family unit by jeopardizing their bond to the person supposed to defend and cherish them. Violence towards their mother or a female caregiver affects approximately 3.3 million children. Aggression, antagonism, disrespect, and separation are all increased in these youngsters (Mannell, Burgess, et al., 2018). They survive from the same health problems as adults: depression, sleep difficulties, mental health problems, and behavioural problems. One might imagine the impact on academic achievement.

Grown-up victims have various lengthy health issues, including cardiovascular disease, severe fatigue, mental problems, and osteoporosis, driving up healthcare expenses to everybody (Bogat & Leahy, 2005). Domestic Violence has various consequences, and perhaps some research indicates that the overall yearly cost in the United States surpasses $12 billion. This covers medical expenses for the victim’s minds and bodies, such as anxiety, post-traumatic anxiety disorders, and separation. Domestic abuse has ramifications that extend beyond the front entrance. It seeps into the society far too often, into areas that are meant to be secure refuges on their own. Here are some significant social impacts:

  • Young kids are not teaching about excellent and polite interactions as they grow up.
  • Abusers are being sentenced to jail.
  • Increased usage of drugs and alcohol, as well as psychological issues.
  • The impact of family and domestic Violence on the NSW population is expected to be moreover $4.5 billion per year (Poutiainen & Holma, 2013).

Causes of Domestic Violence

Domestic Violence mentions to any abuse that occurs among grownups or teenagers in a homosexual love relationship. Domestic Violence is a significant public health dilemma, impacting over 2 million women and 800,000 men and leading to poverty, disability, or deaths of victims, billions in healthcare spending, and lost working performance (Dryden-Edwards, 2016). Intimate partner violence was and, in some respects, remains condoned in all countries by legislative approval of women’s subordination and a lack of appropriate safeguards for Homosexual victims (GLUCK, 2019). Whereas domestic abuse affects partners of all ethnicities, cultures, socioeconomic statuses, and gender identities, inequality, a deficiency of a high school degree, observing relative’s Violence as a child, keeping a negative sense of personal, and behaviours of male dominance, particularly alcohol abuse, are all possible causes for men or women to become victims or abusers. Being degraded, abused, or overly dominated by one’s spouse are all danger signals to evaluate if one suspects they are domestic violence victims (Appiah & Mohammed, 2013).

The majority of domestic abusers witnessed domestic Violence and harassment in their own families as children. As a result, they learned to see mentally and physically Violence as acceptable forms of expressing outrage and coping with their anxieties and personality difficulties. The behaviour they observed as children are repeated in the following ways:

  • In the past, they were able to handle difficulties by resorting to Violence and abusive techniques.
  • They’ve gained a lot of power over other people by abusing them.
  • They have not been stopped or reported to authorities.

The following factors commonly trigger abusers:

  • First, their relationship is at odds with them.
  • Jobless over long periods.
  • Concerns about money.
  • When a spouse chooses to leave, despair sets in.
  • The aggression of rage.
  • Issues cause embarrassment at work or other visible shortcomings.
  • Jealousy and envy.

Domestic Violence can be Addressed

Any Violence or abuse has significant health implications for the victim. Clinical depression, a higher likelihood of heart attack, high cholesterol, respiratory illness, hypertension, cancer, or reproductive issues are all possible side effects (Brehaut, 2019). In addition, anxiety, mental and drug addiction, and high-risk sexual practices are among behavioural health issues.  Domestic Violence is also connected to stress and turnover job performance, which can lead to social isolation, property, and financial issues and increased health risks for families of the victims. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, domestic violence affects one in every four women and one in every nine males (Hagarty, Hameed, et al., 2020). In addition, children observe more than 50% of interpersonal attacks, and if the mother is beaten, they have a 45 to 60 per cent probability of enduring childhood maltreatment. Although it may appear complicated to avoid aggressive conduct, several ways have been proved to be successful. Personal, interpersonal, neighbourhood and cultural variables all interact to impact domestic Violence, according to the CDC’s social system (Usta & Taleb, 2014).

  • Maturity, profession, status, drug addiction, and abuse history are all personal variables.
  • Colleagues in a social circle, married people, and close relatives are all elements in relationships.
  • Schools, jobs, and communities are all examples of the sector in the region.
  • Health, economic, academic, and socialist views are sociocultural variables that contribute to social inequality.

To avoid domestic Violence, this paradigm proposes changing each element independently and collectively by learning, social skills development, preventative initiatives, and legislative reform. Independent factors, for example, can lead to healthier thoughts, ideas, and actions, which can help avoid domestic Violence (Sharma & Borah, 2020). Joining parent or family-centred violence preventive services may help build relationships and minimize the tension that can lead to Violence. In social settings, modifications to policies and practices can enhance social bonds while reducing Violence. Conversely, improvements in health, financial, academic, and socialist views can lead to societal equality.

Chapter 3: Methodology

Research Philosophy

Research philosophy is a set of beliefs about how data about a topic must be collected, evaluated, and applied. In contrast to scripture readings, the term epistemology refers to the diverse approaches to study (Žukauskas, Vveinhardt, et al., 2018). Research philosophy is a broad issue and will not go into great depth about it here. In Bachelor’s level economics and business thesis, researchers are not required to go into great detail regarding research philosophy. However, around one page in the methodology chapter dedicated to research philosophy generally serves a purpose (Saunders, Lewis, et al., 2009). The philosophy of research is an essential component of research technique. Metaphysics, epistemic, and research approaches are the three categories of research philosophy. Thus, according to Saunders, Lewis, and Thornhill, such philosophical perspectives help researchers select which method to use and reasons generated from research questions. In research philosophy, which provides the researcher’s perspective on the world, significant premises are included (Thakurta & Chetty, 2015). These considerations will determine the study approach and techniques.

Research Design

The research design is the overarching approach you pick to combine the many parts of the research rationally and cohesively, guaranteeing that people will adequately handle the research topic; it is the design for data collecting, assessment, and interpretation. A researcher’s research design is the structure for the methodologies and procedures they will use (Kassu Jilcha Sileyew, 2019). Thanks to the design, researchers may focus on research methodologies appropriate for the topic area and establish their research for achievement. The kind of study and its sub-types are explained by the design of a research subject. Information gathering, assessment, and evaluation are the three basic types of study designs. The research design will be determined by the sort of research challenges that a business is experiencing, not the other way around (Akhtar, 2016). The study’s design phase decides selected instruments to employ and how they should be implemented. Well-designed research typically produces little distortion in data and enhances confidence in the quality of the information gathered. In exploratory studies, a design that generates the smallest margin of error is typically regarded as the suitable solution. The process via which researchers must perform their examination is known as a research methodology. It demonstrates how these researchers define their issue and aim and how they communicate their work information gathered throughout the observation period. A research design is a strategy for answering a specific research topic. A research technique is a technique for putting that information into practice. Since excellent research design guarantees that the information people acquire will help them answer their research question more successfully, research design and methodologies are distinct but closely connected.

Research Approach

The study strategy and technique consist of phases that progress from basic ideas to specific data collecting, evaluation, and research methodologies. As a result, it depends on the nature of the research issue getting handled and the rationale for the decision (Grover, 2015). Study approaches are research strategies and processes covering basic ideas to specific data collecting, processing, and interpreting methodologies. This strategy necessitates a series of choices, none of which must be made in the sequence wherein they sound right in which they are presented here. The ultimate choice concerns whether a method should be utilized to investigate a subject (Mimansha & Nitin, 2019). The theoretical frameworks that the researcher brings to the study, the processes of investigation, and the particular research methodologies of data gathering, processing, and evaluation should all play a role in this choice.

Data Collection

Data collection is the act of obtaining and evaluating data collection is the process in a methodical manner that allows respondents to determine research questions, testable theories, and gather the requirements (Kabir, 2016). All disciplines of research, encompassing natural and social sciences, literature, economics, and others, use data collecting as part of their research. Whereas the methodologies differ depending on the field, specific and ethical data collecting stays the same. Data collection is a method of collecting and analyzing information from several sources to provide a comprehensive and realistic representation of a subject (McLaughlin, 2017). Data gathering allows individuals or groups to respond to essential questions, assess results, and forecast future probability and patterns.

Data Analysis

Collecting, converting, and analyzing data to uncover necessary details for corporate decision-making is characterized as data collection. Data research aims to collect meaningful insight from images and make decisions based on that knowledge (Fauzi & Pradipta, 2018). An essential aspect of data assessment is when we reach a choice in our daily lives, we consider what occurred the last time we made that choice or what would happen if we make that decision. This is nothing more than looking backwards or forwards in time and making judgments depending on our findings.  Analysts now do the same technique for business objectives. Based on the business and the research goal, there are a variety of methodologies and strategies for doing it. All of these different data analysis approaches are centred on two key categories: quantitative and qualitative research methodologies (Calzon, 2021).

Ethical Consideration

Among the essential aspects of the research is the ethical considerations. If this section lacks, papers may be condemned to collapse (Burles & BAlly, 2018). However, according to Bryman and Bell, the 10 points below reflect the most significant concepts linked to ethical considerations in the thesis:

  • People in research must not be committed to any Violence.
  • The integrity of survey respondents ought to be a top priority.
  • Beginning of the study, the subjects’ complete agreement must be acquired.
  • It is necessary to make sure that the security of survey respondents is protected.
  • The security of the study data must be guaranteed to an acceptable standard.
  • People and communities enrolled in the research must maintain their identity.
  • Any deceit or distortion regarding the research’s goals and priorities must be prevented.
  • Any connections, revenue streams, and any improprieties must be disclosed.
  • Any research-related discussion should be conducted with openness and integrity.
  • Any false information, as well as a skewed portrayal of main data results, must be prevented.

Chapter 4: Findings & Analysis

Domestic abuse is defined as an event or a sequence of dominating, manipulative, intimidating, humiliating, and violent behaviour, including sexual assault perpetrated by a spouse or fiancé in the majority of situations, but also by a family member or caretaker in certain situations. It is pretty frequent (Walklate, Godfrey, et al., 2021). It is mainly associated with women and committed by men in the great majority of instances.

According to the previous years, domestic violence was reported by approximately 2.3 million individuals aged 16 to 74 years in England and Wales in some last years, with 1.6 million women and 757,000 men, a modest but non-significant reduction from the prior year’s Crime Survey for England and Wales. In England and Wales, except Greater Manchester Police, the police reported 758,941 domestic abuse connected offences, up 9% from the prior years; this appears to be the case that could indicate enhanced police documentation combined with increasing victim identification (Havard, 2021). Submissions of domestic violence defendants from the police to the Crown Prosecution Service for a certainly warrants decreased 19 per cent to 79,965 in the year last of March 2019, from 98,470 in the previous year. Almost three-quarters of domestic violence allied CPS investigations achieved a judgment of 78 per cent, a comparable proportion to the prior years, compared to 74 per cent in the year ending March 2019 and 76 per cent in the year ending March 2018 (Zaver, Sharma, et al., 2021)

Among March and June 2020, that there would be a 7% growth in police documented domestic violence allied offences compared to the corresponding time the prior year; even so, there has been a substantial rise in these crimes in past decades, so it is unclear if this can be traced mainly to the coronavirus pandemic.

There had been an overall rise in prices for domestic violence victim support programs, with the National Domestic Abuse Support team seeing a 65 per cent rise in requests and interactions during April and June 2020 compared to the first three months of the year. The rise in prices for domestic violence assistance was especially evident after the loosening of lockdown initiatives in mid-May, as evidenced by a 12 per cent higher number of domestic violence incidents managed by Support Groups in the week the lockdown constraints were alleviated, comparison to the prior week; this tends to reflect the victims of the troubles experienced in securely getting help during the lockdown. Increased request for domestic abuse victim providers does not prove a surge in the prevalence of victims (Feder, D’Oliveira, 2021). However, it could indicate a rise in the seriousness of the abuse becoming encountered and unavailability of defence strategies, such as the opportunity to end the house to evade the abuse or participate in counselling.

As during coronavirus outbreak in 2020, there had been an overall rise in requests for domestic abuse sufferer community services, with the National Domestic Abuse Helpline seeing a 65 per cent increase in queries and encounters throughout April and June 2020, opposed to some months (Boutgault, Peterman, et al., 2021). As per the Crime Survey for England and Wales for the year ending March 2020, an expected 5.5 per cent of people aged 16 to 74 years suffered domestic violence in 2019. This identifies nearly 2.3 million people. During the year ending March 2020, the forces in England and Wales completed several 1,288,018 domestic violence occurrences and offences.

529,077 occurrences were not later reported as crimes, accounting for 41% of the total. Domestic violence offences accounted for the remaining 59 per cent, or 758,941. Despite the relaxation of lockdown procedures in mid-May, there was a 12 per cent rise in the number of domestic violence cases processed by Victim Support in the week the limitations were lifted (Langton, Dixon, et al., 2021). Moreover, because the prevalence of domestic violence offences has been steadily growing in previous years, it is impossible to say if the coronavirus or COVID-19 outbreak is to blame for the rise in 2020.

Jess Phillips MP, a domestic violence advocate, believes the government has placed too much emphasis on the prison system, despite cuts to law enforcement resources and a reduction in the number of shelter beds available. Domestic violence will impact one out of every three women at some point in their lives (Szilassy, Barbosa, et al., 2021). Women make up the majority of casualties, whereas males comprise the majority of offenders. Domestic violence-affected 4.2 per cent of males and 7.9 per cent of women in England and Wales in 2018, as per the Office of National Statistics. This translates to around 685,000 male victims and 1,300,000 female victims. According to past results, domestic violence results in the murder of two women per week and 30 males every year.

Domestic violence accounts for 16 per cent of violent crime, although it is the least problematic to be investigated by the police. Domestic violence victims are more likely to be abused again than victims of any other crime (Skafina, Morrison, et al., 2021). Domestic victims of abuse have abused an equivalent of 68 instances before exposing it to the authorities. Domestic violence is the most commonly cited cause of homelessness. According to Age UK, 200,000 adults aged 60 to 74 in England and Wales suffered domestic violence in a year, although unreported violence might imply the actual statistics are more significant.

The numbers did not include anyone above the age of 74. UK’s Caroline Abrahams stated, “Domestic violence is commonly misunderstood to just impact younger generation, but hundreds of thousands of elderly adults are also impacted. For victims who have now been subjected to years of continuous harassment, are separated within such a specific community due to cultural context, are undergoing lengthy health effects or disorders, or are dependent on their offender for their treatment or funds, the obstacles to looking for assistance or abandoning an unhappy marriage can be extreme (Evans, Lindauer, et al., 2020).” The Department for National Statistics’ study results showed that out 10% of 16-19-year-old women are afflicted by the problem annually, according to a 2017 report. According to the Crime Survey for England and Wales, an approximated 2.3 million individuals between 16 to 74 years suffered domestic violence in the previous year, up to March 2020. Recommendations of suspected domestic violence incidents from the police to the Crown Prosecution Service for a certainly warrants decreased 19 per cent to 79,965 in the year ending March 2019, from 98,470 in the previous year. Over three-quarters of domestic violence CPS cases (78 per cent) resulted in a judgment, which is comparable to the rate in 2019 (Aldridge, 2020). Planned cuts to government financing for women’s refugee families may make it more difficult for women and children to flee domestic abuse. A total of 2,000 women each year may be impacted. In 2016-17, 60 per cent of referrals to refuges were turned down, and budget cuts might exacerbate the problem. Other disadvantaged populations may have to compete for funds with domestic violence shelters.

Domestic Violence on Women

Domestic Violence cases of England and Wales of 2018-2019

Women escaping domestic abuse may face a funding crisis as to whether or not they can evacuate. Women escaping domestic abuse are routinely placed in inappropriate accommodation, such as homes with leaking toilets or mouse infestations. This increases the likelihood of women returning to the attacker. Leading to variations in financial assistance, 3234 victims were forced to confront their abuser in judgment lacking legal representation in the first nine months of 2017, compared to 1309 victims in the same period in 2012 (Krishnadas & Taha, 2020). Women’s Aid’s Katie Ghose stated, “Cross-examination of victims in the court system by their violent married partner is all too frequent, as we understand. The government must emphasize the execution of the prohibition on this heinous behaviour, whether through the judiciary legislation or domestic violence and assault legislation. To flee domestic violence, victims should be able to obtain justice in both prosecution and custody laws securely.” Since 2010, 65 per cent of people in England, Wales, and Scotland have decreased solid support for women’s refuges. Domestic violence victims will be forced to compete with other disadvantaged individuals for money for emergency accommodation (Hunter, Barnett, et al., 2018). Domestic violence victims, substance abusers, previous criminals, and needy individuals will not be qualified for subsidized housing; alternatively, restricted money will be available for domestic violence victims, drug addicts, past abusers, and rough sleepers. When determining whether or not a woman qualifies for legal help, her assets are considered. Sometimes, women are unable to retrieve their property because the assailant has authority over them. Females are unable to obtain legal rights as a result of this.

Domestic Violence on Women

Death cases related to Domestic Violence

The National Centre for Domestic Violence’s Mark Groves stated, “Most individuals accept that Legal Services is free; however, it is not; they must provide a means-tested payment. Victims of physical violence who do not have financial stability may lack this, and those who have abandoned the family home may lack the proper paperwork. If a person owns a home, they must be thrown aside a bank transfer compared to the home equity line of credit, which might be hundreds of thousands of dollars (Barnett, 2020).” Many males have murdered their female companions on many occasions. In Theodore Johnson, who was sentenced to death in January 2018 and sentenced to a minimal level of 30 years in prison, he had previously been charged with a murder case on two occasions due to his mental illness. Such incidents are viewed as proof that government does not take male violence against women effectively.

Many persons convicted of domestic violence scare their sufferers into not going to court, which leads to the prosecution getting dismissed behind them. Around 220 cases were tracked in a report by the police and North Umbria crime commissioner (Ramsay, Rutterford, et al., 2012). It implies that cases in which the accuser refuses to attend are dropped too quickly and that law enforcement officers require more resources. Domestic abuse affects foreigners in particular. Migrant workers who are victims of domestic violence have been progressively expelled since 2012, thanks to the dangerous environment legislation. According to The Guardian, “The percentage removal for domestic violence regulation applications increased from 12% in 2012 to 30% in 2016, the last year for which comprehensive information was gathered (Boyle & Todd, 2003). According to the data, 1,325 individuals were turned down out of a total of 5,820 applications between 2012 and 2016.” Victims of abuse may be expelled without their case being considered solely about what the offender says.

The Reasonably Effective Initiative is a Scottish program aimed at reducing domestic violence. This entails intervening early in situations of domestic violence involving women, girls, and children. To assist re-offending, the Caledonian Program for males committed of offences involving domestic violence will be enlarged, and the Assault Emergency Sexual Violence Support for the vulnerable will be implemented at different institutions. In England and Wales, sexual assault and rape violence assistance programs are also getting a boost (Graca, 2017). Although disabled women are more likely to face domestic violence than allowed women, most sanctuaries do not provide accessibility. Domestic abuse victims with physical impairments have access to one out of every ten refugees. There were no available areas in 20 of the 131 councils. Domestic violence affects 16.8% of women with severe illness or disability, relative to 6.3 per cent of ready and willing women. Domestic violence can take the structure of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse, as well as the failure to provide care for those who have a long-term illness or accident. Over the five years to 2018, government support for women’s refugee camps dropped by 6%, according to data obtained from 144 of 210 UK councils consulted. Southampton City Council, which has reduced domestic abuse shelters by 65 per cent since 2013/4, has made the most significant decrease (Prakash, Patra, et al., 2018). Domestic abuse sufferers in the UK have been exposed to discrimination, with locations for shelter often denied based on the language they communicate, according to women’s organizations. Victims were allegedly rejected because they did not speak English. According to the charity, five of the 20 victims were turned away by shelters because they did not understand English. Domestic violence accounts for a significant percentage of our business, with the staff obtaining up to 70 inquiries per hour during rush hours for charging determinations. Domestic violence represented 52 per cent of the workload in the first quarter of 2020 while covering the first lockdown. This violence affects people of all ages and professions (Gama, Pedro, et al., 2020). Whereas men towards women perpetrate most abuse, abuse can also be perpetrated by men against men, and violence can occur in same-sex partnerships. Domestic violence does not necessarily have to be violent to be punished; in fact, victims could be unaware that they are being abused. It may be any action used by a perpetrator to gain power or influence over another person, and we know that psychological abuse is equally as destructive as physical assault.

This crime affects people of any age and profession. Because men towards women perpetrate most violence, violence can also be perpetrated by men, and violence can occur in same-sex partnerships. Domestic violence does not necessarily have to be violent to be punished; in fact, sufferers may be unaware that they are being abused. It may be any action used by a perpetrator to gain control or authority over another person, and we know that psychological abuse is equally as destructive as physical assault. Because if a sufferer has claimed crime to the police, there are various reasons why they might not pursue a case – affection, embarrassment, remorse, loneliness, fear of the procedure, and language obstacles, to name a few. One of the causes these crimes might be brutal to charge is the high rate of victim turnover (Afolabi, 2014).  The criminal justice system is trying extremely hard to enhance lives and act as a barrier for these individuals and family children. Our Domestic Abuse Recommended Practice Guidelines, which were approved in 2019, drew on lessons learned throughout the criminal justice system. It was stressed that victims feel at ease with the assistance of an Official Domestic Violence Advisor and that specific methods, such as presenting testimony beneath shields or through live connection, are explored in each instance.

Throughout this period, inquiries to London’s Police Department rose as well, although mostly from third-party companies instead of victims themselves. This shift might be explained by the cumulative impact of victims getting limited chances to report crimes and neighbours getting more, although enhanced police documentation could also be a role. Increasing evidence suggests that people who commit abuse are changing (Hamadani, Hasan, et al., 2020). According to the LSE and the Metropolitan Police research, there was an 8.1 per cent rise in violence from new partners, a 17.1 per cent higher from relatives, and an 11.4 per cent reduction in violence suffered by past partners between April and June 2020.

Chapter 5: Discussion

Female violence is becoming a more prominent topic of discussion in government circles throughout the world. Thirty-five per cent of women globally are affected by such violence. Goal 5 of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals now addresses gender discrimination. Target 5.2 concentrates on all kinds of violence against women and girls in both the formal and informal realms (Stripe, 2020). While the form, scope, and consequences of this violence vary by country and area, criminal behaviour study has spent the last 40 years investigating these concerns and the affective responses that have resulted. These papers, and others which are publicly accessible from the British Journal of Crime and come from all around the globe, give some context for understanding the vast spectrum of harassment that women regularly encounter from males they recognize and males they do not know. This book emphasizes the chronic occurrence of this abuse and the need for control and advocacy forces in combating it (Kumar, 2020). Although police documented crime statistics mean an increase in domestic violence infractions, mainly during the coronavirus epidemic, there seems to be a substantial increase in police collected domestic violence crimes over past years as police have increased their live broadcast of such crimes; consequently, it is unclear if this growth can be traced solely to the coronavirus outbreak. The weekly proportion of potential claims and the number of orders issued from mid-April to the end of June were higher than the pre-lockdown average (Bates & Hester, 2020).

In contrast, the weekly amount of occupancy orders issued throughout March and June was lower. Throughout the lockdown, the Metropolitan Police Assistance experienced an upsurge in service requests for domestic disturbances, primarily from third parties; this is usually related to individuals spending much time at home during this time (Gibson, 2020). As during coronavirus epidemic, growth in domestic abusive person services increased in fact, especially on support groups as lockdown initiatives were alleviated; this does not prove an uptick in the frequency of sufferers, but rather an enhance in the intensity of harassment getting witnessed and an absence of readily accessible defence skills such as the opportunity to end the home to seek help; this does not prove a rise in the number of affected people, but rather a rise in the intensity of harassment becoming encountered and a shortage of usable defence skills. When compared to the prior month, the overall majority of instances reviewed at multi-agency threat management meetings dropped from April to June 2020; this may represent the difficulty high-risk victims had in securely contacting the police during the lockdown time.

Domestic violence is frequently a covert crime that goes unreported to the authorities. As a result, police statistics can only give a limited picture of the absolute amount of domestic abuse. Because many incidents are not reported to the authorities, they will not go through the criminal justice system. Lockdown constraints went into place on March 23, 2020, in reaction to the coronavirus outbreak, imposing tight constraints on everyday living (Jones & Isham, 2020). This report uses information from many places to analyze the effects of the coronavirus outbreak on domestic violence in England and Wales from April 2020 forward. Each publication’s data includes extra reference times to allow for comparisons with pre-lockdown periods when available. Since the information in this article is collected on multiple bases and using distinct timeframes and comparison times, the statistics are not strictly applicable. Claims can also be dropped at any point along with the procedure.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

To stop it from spreading, defend our healthcare facilities, and, most importantly, better defend others with wellbeing weaknesses who are at risk of existence or reality ailment, it has been possible to change social interactions as never before, as well as for government agencies to change the magnitude toward which they interact in our relationships and habits (Jones & Isham, 2020). People should express concerns about the views and requirements of victims of domestic abuse and sufferers to highlight some of the regrettable and unsettling contradictions of social distance and separation techniques, not to criticize them. People do so because assaulter’ perspectives and demands are frequently ignored and neglected in the press and democracy, and programmatic circles (Aldridge, 2020). They also bring these problems up as there are steps that may be taken to reduce the extra hazards that COVID-19 and its economic and social consequences pose to the survivor. Regional and community governments may, for example, defend and assist programs that can provide disaster and rehabilitative assistance to survivors right now. People could also assist each other by becoming conscious of and, when feasible, extending out to individuals who may be impacted by domestic violence (Barnett, 2020). It does not matter if it is personally or professionally. This epidemic presents a contradiction in terms of being safe at all times, which people should all be aware of. Authorities worldwide have urged us to perform a bit in combating COVID-19 by remaining at the house. It is also important to remember what that implies for several women and children.


Domestic violence occurs when couples, close relatives, or partners engage in extreme assault, intimidation, abusive behaviour, extortion, or stalking to influence their participants’ conduct. Victims must realize that they are not to blame for the assault. No one deserves to be tortured, no matter how bad the situation is (Putten and E-Jannat, 2020).

Sufferers must confess that they have been mistreated or are in an abusive partner to themselves. Even though an abused individual is not prepared to leave their aggressor, acknowledging and validating their condition is a critical first stage. Domestic violence sufferers must communicate to their relatives, friends, acquaintances, or colleagues about their experiences (Mahapatro & Singh, 2019). Calling a domestic abuse helpline for data, connections, and assistance may be beneficial.

Here are some recommendations:

  • While domestic abuse happens, having a strategy to cope with an emergency or crisis is beneficial. People must consider methods to make their homes and communities safer for themselves and their children. Survivors should devise a strategy to escape out of their house swiftly and securely if violence breaks out.
  • Survivors and their friends, family, and colleagues may need to contact the police for assistance. Domestic violence is a violation, and people should not be hesitant to seek urgent assistance (Lazenbatt, Devaney, et al., 2013).
  • Some accidents necessitate medical attention. Survivors of physical or sexual abuse should consult a doctor for a thorough medical examination.


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Written by

Md. Shadequr Rahaman

Email: [email protected]

Domestic Violence on Women

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