Leadership and Management Theories Applied by Marks and Spencer Ltd.
There are many leadership and management theories applied by Marks and Spencer Ltd. in their business operations. The management and leadership theories which are used by the organization are given below:
Contemporary Theory of Management
Marks and Spencer Ltd. use contemporary management theory to deal with higher production costs in the current situation. Managers of the organization try to reduce the cost of raw material by negotiating with suppliers (Giuliani and Kurson, 2007). The leaders motivate the employees to cope up with new suppliers and maintain their performance outcomes.
Management by Objective (MBO)
Organizational objectives are achieved by employees and managers of Marks and spencer with their combined effort. Here managers lead the team to complete tasks accordingly related to the standard of performance.
Classical Management Theory
Classical management theory helps to improve the productivity of the organization. The theory is also known as Kaizen. This strategy does continuous improvement in the production process (Giuliani and Kurson, 2007). Participative leadership style is followed by Marks and Spencer to decision making and improvement of production.
Behavioral Theory of Management
Transformational leadership is followed by leaders in the behavioral theory of management. Marks and Spencer applied the theory in their operation management and all the skills and abilities of the employees are closely observed by the leaders. Effective leadership is followed to maintain communication between the leader and employees.
Contingency theory focuses on changes in strategy with the changes in a situation (Management by Objectives: A Management Tod Arthur Johnson, Principal Williston (Fla.) High School, 1982). The organization uses the theory to minimize the risk and in this situation leaders play the most important role to make changes and help the employees to cope up with the market condition and changes of situation.
The leadership strategy depends on the skill and abilities of the employees to complete the job within the time limit (Giuliani and Kurson, 2007). Marks and Spencer use this leadership strategy to meet up their demand for different situations.
It is applied by the leaders of Marks and spencer to control employee performance and communication in different situations. It influences the workers to perform according to the organizational demand.
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