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Role of Management Accounting

The Role of Management Accounting, The Nature of Management Accounting and The Problems of Management Accounting

  1. Introduction

Numerous researchers eg. Colville (1981) and Chua (1986) trust that bookkeeping is a socially built capacity through giving particular implications to different demonstrations of bookkeeping. Accordingly, this section sees administration bookkeeping as a sociology instead of considering it as just a monetary framework. Right off the bat this entry would present the substance of administration bookkeeping and how Management Accounting assume a job in the undertaking. To examination the role of Management Accounting in administration control plainly, this section take activity based costing(ABC) for instance in monetary point of view. Since administration bookkeeping continues creating to steady with the difference in external condition like society politic organizations` shapes, this section would demonstrate the procedure of progress of Management Accounting. By pointing out this procedure, we could discover the prevalence of post-mechanistic approaches over administration bookkeeping. Be that as it may, this new administration bookkeeping likewise bring issues both up in financial viewpoint and non-monetary perspective.

  1. The Nature of Management Accounting

Conventional management comprise an arrangement of calculative practice, and is a unitary and general practice, to be specific a static and functionalist framework, reliable with large scale manufacturing and unthinking association. (Wickramasinghe, 2007) directors utilize this framework to set standard item cost with the end goal to accomplish administration reason, for example, cost control and estimating inside single-movement organizations. (Copper and Kaplan, 1988) despite the fact that it very well may be utilized to accomplish administration and control reason, it is more utilized for monetary reason, such as giving stock esteem. while with the happening to social and financial change, ordinary administration couldn’t bolster basic leadership and cost control. This is classified “pertinence lost”(Johnson and Kaplan, 1987) another administration bookkeeping like ABC proposed by Cooper and Kaplan (1988) is dynamic and subject to changes under recorded condition. Consequently, this new administration bookkeeping could be viewed as a result of social change, adjusting to globalization, new worldwide political order, change in culture et cetera. From monetary viewpoint, administrators could settle on better choices about item plan and evaluating and urges constant working enhancements to keep advertise focused position and client acceptable, by making adaptability in the circle of costing and connecting cost with vital administration and making channels to correspondence shape different flights to examination their items and clients. It could be an otherworldly administrative innovation, which even do ponder, incorporating turning the business in altogether new ways.

Role of Management Accounting

  1. The Role of Management Accounting from organizational perspective

3.1The Role of Management Accounting in organizational control from economic perspective

After 1980s, the administration bookkeeping is proposed as an answer for the issue of ‘ significance lost’. along these lines, one of the fundamental job in hierarchical control is appeared in financial viewpoint. Since there are a great deal of hypothesis and frameworks about administration bookkeeping, with the end goal to examination obviously about its capacity, this entry accept ABC as model.

ABC prompts better assets administration, bigger piece of the pie and, finally, increased upper hand by fulfilling clients. Firstly, as ABC endeavors to dispose of the roundabout expenses by assigning aberrant expense to coordinate cost which can be specifically credited to cost objects, such as items and customers. It makes all settled and backhanded cost guide and variable, which takes into account adaptable specialization after 1980s. Therefore, ABC has been connected to various ventures (Tsai, 1996, for example, hipbuilding (PorterandKehoe, 1994), automotive (Miller, 1994), airplane manufacturing (Haedicke and Feil, 1991), media transmission (Hodby et al., 1994), gadgets (Merz and Hardy, 1993) and shipbuilding (Porter and Kehoe, 1994). Secondly, cost administration could dispense with conceivable superfluous generation offices which is related with non-esteem included activities (Gunasekaran and Sarhadi, 1998). By characterizing the exercises as esteem included and non-esteem added, managers could take out the non-esteem included exercises through ABC methods, which prompts better management. Therefore, the creation is greater adaptability react to the prerequisite of the market. Taking the made parts as an example, as the future of items is diminished by the interest of the market, the structure and improvement stage play an ever increasing number of essential jobs in item life cycle. In request to precisely figure the item costs, the advancement and configuration costs should be estimated accurately. By utilizing ABC model regarding the Role of Management Accounting, the advancement and configuration expenses can be estimated precisely and the non-esteem included exercises can be killed. (David Ben-Arieh*, Li Qian, 2003)

Moreover, ABC can be received as a bookkeeping procedure which is basically straightforward and includes just the computation of movement cost rate. By examining the exercises which are identified with generation and offering, directors could decide the aggregate expense of individual activities, and significant cost driver. Then, by figuring cost driver rates for every action cost category, overhead cost can be controlled by totaling the action cost of each product. Therefore, more and more enterprises receive ABC strategies to their cost management. Lee and Sullivan (1998) embraced ABC model to reasonable level of PCBS design. They related the cost drivers with the structure parameters appeared amid the theoretical plan arrange and made the item configuration address the issues of the market.

3.2 The Role of Management Accounting in organizational control from non-economic perspective

It is important to examination how administration bookkeeping do its capacity from other point of view, since it ascending from social change.

Administration bookkeeping plays authoritative/administration control jobs in creating learning of the workplace. In spite of the fact that administration bookkeeping gives bookkeeping data to administrators to decide, the basic leadership exercises represent just a generally little piece of administrative work (Hales, 1986). Kotter (1982) even discovered that such exercises once in a while are not excessively basic contrasted with other administrative work, for instance, reacting to crisis issues. Furthermore, Landau and Stout (1979) contended that supervisors are basically in charge of managing issues that are suspicious, questionable and can possibly cause huge mistake. Along these lines, chiefs utilize administrative data not exclusively to settle on choices yet in addition all the more often to create information of their current workplace and obscure future results (March, 1986). Walk (1986) clarified administrative data not as a contribution to a particular basic leadership situation, this learning building process is more similar to a speculation, higher nature of data prompts a higher nature of information “stock”.

Administration bookkeeping likewise plays hierarchical/administration control jobs through transaction which can help ease the logical inconsistencies and certification the acknowledgment of the most fundamental interests from interpretive human science viewpoint. In other words, although the essential interests of the general population in the association are the equivalent, there exist people`s private interests unavoidably, along these lines causing logical inconsistencies. Administration bookkeeping in association could be an arbiter to more extensive hierarchical individuals. Interpretive researchers trust that the commitment of administration bookkeeping relies upon how individuals imagine its motivation. This contention is upheld by numerous researchers. Boland and Pondy (1983) who discovered that financial plans are ensnared by giving open doors for transaction and Asari and Bell(1999) who discovered that individuals make and translate implications and qualities for controls. Whenever Covleski and Dirsmith (1986) examined the planning practice in University of Wisconsin, they discovered that results of spending targets are transactions among college and government.

  1. Evaluation of ABC (Activity Based Costing)

As a result of adaptation to changes in production and organizational structure and external economic and political environment, ABC is a solution to the problem of ‘relevance lost’ and has its own advantage for evaluating the Role of Management Accounting. ABC has become a global expert system. However, it never and ever means that ABC is perfect. ABC not only has its own defects but also could raise other unintended problems from economic aspect and non-economic aspect.

  • Advantage of ABC (Activity Based Costing)
    • Advantage of ABC (Activity Based Costing) in economic aspect

Initially, ABC is suggested on account of monetary, pragmatist, standardizing and deterministic reasons, which are principally reflected in speaking to money related occasions precisely, supporting sane basic leadership and contracting. The second advantage for ABC is that it could expand cost mindfulness and comprehension, designate of overheads to cost protests effectively, and measure cost administration and operational choices from budgetary (cost driver rates) and non-budgetary (cost driver volumes) perspectives.(Cooper and Kaplan, 1987; Cooper, 1988a, 1988b; Innes and Mitchell, 1991, 1998; Kaplan and Cooper, 1998).Finally, individuals indicate enthusiasm for ABC since it advances efficiency, rationality and at last profitability.(Innes and Mitchell, 1998; Jones and Dugdale, 2002) From Marconi’s point of view, ABC held the possibility of all the while enhancing administrative choices and fulfilling outside coercive institutional weights, particularly from controllers. In addition, tolerating counsel from specialists who prompted ICP and the EU, and emulating substantial firms had favorable circumstances. Marconi was no bookkeeping pioneer – it may agitate controllers – it was a complier Advantage of ABC in non-financial viewpoint.

  • Problems of Management Accounting
    • problems of ABC (Activity Based Costing) in economic aspect

Right off the bat, new administration bookkeeping has insufficiencies in innovation, however it has been moved forward. For instance, ABC ha inadequacies in innovation, given that there is no complete reason for allotting or retaining aberrant expenses. Wilson and Chua (1993). This could prompt emotional exercise while picking action pools and action drivers. Administrative obstruction is conceivable to make whether this emotional exercise summon suspicious and difference. The instance of Marconi has sealed this end.

Moreover, the new administration bookkeeping could barely accomplish its objective. For instance, in spite of the fact that ABC could assign all expense to related exercises and clients in principle, it is scarcely to make it by and by. In other way, ABC unavoidably contorts item costs by covering aberrant expenses behind cost drivers. (Wickramasinghe,2007). Therefore, ABC likewise exists the issue of figuring and designating backhanded expense on subjective premise. Whenever Hopper and Major (2007) contemplated the motivation to why Portuguese Telecommunications embraced ABC, they discovered that ABC did not specifically designate an essentially more prominent extent of overhead expenses to items as anticipated.

What`s more, this administration bookkeeping is conceivable to make clashes in various divisions. Since in spite of the fact that this framework means to give intensive data about association to make decisions, it would give careful consideration to one viewpoint. In this way, by and by, chiefs might be just focus on one angle and overlook different realities. Accept Portuguese Telecommunications as precedent. When it embraced ABC, ABC given more data to business division about item estimating plan and benefits and ignored data required by producer office like incremental expenses of gear and staff and exchanging costs. Similarly as The Production Department’s Director contended that, all the Production engineers needed was particular and auspicious costing information exhibited in an easy to use arrangement to convey a monetary view to specialized choices’. However, the ABC framework did not effortlessly yield this. (Container and Major, 2007)

  • Disadvantage of ABC (Activity Based Costing) in non-economic aspect

Firstly, the increment of modernity and unpredictability could prompt comprehend it and further to hone. Ittner and Larcker (2003) discovered chiefs dependably confront troubles to comprehend and interface non-budgetary measures to one another and to money related estimates when applies a mind boggling execution estimation framework. For instance, the reasonable scorecard strategy gives thorough and point by point administrative data which partitioned into four sections. By looking at planned and real figure in every point of view, chiefs build up their insight into workplace. In any case, supervisors may concentrate just on measurements and disregard the specific vulnerabilities in this manner their capacity to amend blunder is dispensed with. A few researchers even hold this view it isn’t basic to utilize this advanced administration bookkeeping. Malina, Norreklit and Selto (2007) contended that bookkeeping data does not should be measurably legitimate. Directors ought to depend on the capacity to express the sound judgment and valid story of the element.

Secondly, some associations from different enterprises are conceivable not reasonable to utilize comparative administration bookkeeping with others. Because of certain on-screen character and system, some administration bookkeeping, for example, ABC has wound up worldwide master framework. Whenever organizations or open association receive to this administration bookkeeping is think about whether they are appropriate to utilize them. For instance, organizations embrace methods with across the board social help and duplicate fruitful organizations to keep their exercises being addressed, especially when vulnerabilities flourish (Fligstein, 1985, 1991; Covaleski and Dirsmith, 1988a, 1988b; Galaskiewicz and Wasserman, 1989; Haveman, 1993). If a few organizations from other industry and open association receive this framework without thinking about their genuine circumstance and possess qualities, they would find that these frameworks couldn’t coordinate their exercises or these framework has minimal constructive outcome on their basic leadership and hierarchical control.

Thirdly., the use of new administration bookkeeping could harm mechanical connections. Marconi was not unitary: laborers were suspicious about it. For instance, Ezzamel and Willmott (1998) and Ezzamel et al. (2004) discovered chiefs deferred actualizing ABC inspired by a paranoid fear of aggravating modern relations. Since senior-supervisors consider ABC to be an instrument which could assist them with identifying non-esteem including exercises reliable with ‘cutting back’ and ‘delayering’ including redundancies, work strengthening and outer subcontracting (Armstrong, 2002), a few representatives seen ABC as undermining to independence, professional stability and word related identities. highlight the new message you are passing on and coordinate future research.

  1. Conclusion

In this passage, we study the nature of management accounting and analysis the role of it in organizational control and its merits and disadvantage. Because we realize a new management accounting compared with conventional one is a product under social change, we put it in a wider social context to analyze rather than only concentrating on economic perspective. Although there is gap between theory and practice, we hope this passage could encourage authors to find ways to bridge this gap.

References

  1. Gunasekaran, M. S. (1998). Implementation of activity-based costing in manufacturing. International. Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 231-242.

C.M. Merz, A. H. (1993). ABC puts accountants on design team at HP. Management Accounting , Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 22-27.

Chua, R. W. (2010). Managerial accounting: method and meaning, (teachers’guide edn ed.), London: Chapman and Hall.

Cooper, R. (1988). The rise of activity-based costing – part one: what is an activity-based cost system? Journal of Cost Management for the Manufacturing Industry, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 45-54.

Dacin, M. (2002). Institutional theory and institutional change: introduction to the special research forum. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 45, No. 1, pp. 45-57.

Dirsmith, M. C. (1988). The use of budgetary symbols in the political arena: an historically informed field study. Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 1-24.

Ezzamel, M. (2004). Accounting and management–labour relations: the politics of production in the ‘factory with a problem. Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 29, No. 3/4, pp. 269-302.

Hall, M. (2010). Accounting information and managerial work. Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 301-315.

Kaplan, H. J. (1987). Relevance lost: the rise and fall of management accounting, Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.

Kehoe, T. J. (1994). Using activity-based costing and valueanalysis to take the pain out of downsizing at a naval shipyard. National Productivity Review, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 115-125.

Miller, S. H. (1994). The view from inside GM’s general auditor looks back. Journal of Accountancy, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 44-46.

Mitchell, J. I. (1991). Activity Based Cost Management: A Case Study of Development and Implementation, London: CIMA.

  1. Hodby, J. T. (1994). Activity-based management at AT&T. Management Accounting, Vol. 75, No. 10, pp. 35-39.

T.J. Porter, J. K. (1994). Using activity-based costing and valueanalysis to take the pain out of downsizing at a naval shipyard. National Productivity Review , Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 115-125.

Tsai, W. H. (1996). Activity-based costing model for joint products. Computer and Industrial Engineering, Vol. 31, No. 3/4, pp. 725-729.

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Md. Shadequr Rahaman

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