The Politics of Post Brexit Europe
The United Kingdom withdrew from the European Union. The date was set for January 31. According to him, the European Union has severed ties with the United Kingdom. In the end, that’s what happened.
Even at the last minute, two approvals were needed. The first was on January 24, 2020, when the heads of the European Commission and the European Council finalized the Brexit agreement. Earlier in the day, a majority of members of the EU parliament voted in favor of the agreement. The last step was taken on 29 January when members of the EU Parliament formally ratified the agreement. As a result, the 47-year relationship came to an end. The UK will now have one year to sign a trade agreement with the EU. The name ‘British Exit‘ is abbreviated as Brexit. This is the process of Britain’s exit from the European Union. However, this task was not so easy.
The ‘Brexit’ process has moved forward through various questions and processes. A referendum was held in Britain on June 23, 2016. On that day, British citizens were asked whether the UK should or should not be with the European Union. On that day, 52% of the people voted in favor of leaving the European Union and 48% voted in favor of staying. Then all the dramatic events happen. Conservative Party leader David Cameron has been the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom for six years since 2010. He wanted the United Kingdom to remain with the European Union. But when he lost the referendum, Theresa May took over as prime minister. Ever since he took charge (2016), he has been saying that ‘Brexit’ will be completed in his time. But the task was not easy for him. The EU needed an agreement with Britain. But when his proposed Brexit agreement was rejected by the UK Parliament, he was forced to hold early general elections in June 2016. But the Conservatives lost a majority in parliament in the vote. After Theresa May resigned (2019), Boris Johnson became the Prime Minister. Johnson’s Brexit proposal was also rejected several times in the British Parliament. In this situation, re-election was held there at the end of last year. Boris Johnson and his Conservative Party won the election by a landslide.
Although the Brexit agreement is now in effect, there are many questions that will affect the politics of Britain and the European Union in the future. The “divorce” agreement between Britain and the European Union requires Britain to pay the EU $39 million. What will happen to the citizens of EU countries in Britain now? How will the EU-UK border between Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic now be defined? Will Scotland, which is part of the United Kingdom, leaves the United Kingdom, and join the EU separately? What will happen now on the Irish border is a big concern. The EU’s agreement with Britain uses the term “backstop”. The term ‘backstop’ is used to refer to the latest attempt to maintain an open border on the island of Ireland, regardless of the Brexit agreement. This is a system where EU rules will apply to a number of issues, including food, only in Northern Ireland, except in other parts of the UK. But many MPs have raised questions. Their argument is that even if Britain leaves the EU and part of it remains within the framework of Northern Ireland EU law, it cannot happen. Again, many want to stay close to or inside the EU. Again, some say Northern Ireland should not be viewed differently from the rest of the UK. A possibility has arisen that Scotland may now also leave the UK-Union. The United Kingdom consists of England, Scotland (1707) and Northern Ireland (1801). The British referendum in Scotland has had an impact. The spirit of freedom is getting stronger there. Britain’s 2016 referendum and decision to leave the EU did not encourage Scottish and Irish extremists. They did not harmonize with Britain. The Scots now want to take Britain’s place in the EU. Scotland can also apply for EU membership once Britain leaves.
Britain justifies the EU. Will it break up the EU? How much impact will it have on European politics? Needless to say, the EU is going through a crisis. The recent economic crisis in Greece was able to attract worldwide attention. Greece’s economic crisis proved that the European Union model is not conducive to Greek politics and the economy. Then came the massive migration to Europe centered on the Syrian crisis. Thousands of people have fled Syria and Iraq to Europe. The presence of thousands of foreigners on the roads and railway stations in Europe changed the landscape of Europe. The move by the EU to send these migrants to various EU countries has caused a great deal of controversy. An anti-immigration public opinion is strong. By capitalizing on this anti-immigration public opinion, the far right is gaining strength in Europe. They do well in local and national politics. In Germany, they are now the third-largest party and in the future, they can form a coalition government! These hard-line right-wingers are now extremely powerful in France, Poland. They have also formed a government in Hungary. Many countries now (Poland, Czech Republic, Denmark, and Sweden) are taking steps to enact separate laws to protect their own culture, heritage, and economy.
Britain’s exit would put the EU at risk economically. It will have an impact on the UK economy. Investment there will decline. The business will go elsewhere. The damage will be to the local economy. Already many large banks and insurance headquarters have been moved from London to Frankfurt (Germany). The Brexit incident will not turn Britain into a world power at all. It is true that British voters voted in favor of Brexit in a referendum and later in the general election by defeating the Conservatives in order to maintain their separate existence. But the big question now is whether they will benefit greatly from this. On the contrary, Britain has been playing a big role in the World Cup since the EU. Now there is a rhythmic fall. There is also the question of what Britain will be like now. At what stage will Britain’s relationship with the EU be? Britain now has to enter into separate trade and security agreements with each of the EU countries. This discussion can be long-lasting. A decision must also be made on EU citizens currently working in the UK. Even British citizens who work in EU countries have to make an agreement.
The United Kingdom is one of the largest economies in the world. The United Kingdom is also a member of the G-7 and the Security Council. The weak UK will not have any acceptance in the world arena. The UK’s GDP stands at $3.028 trillion. That is $2.936 trillion, which is fifth in the world. The average per capita income is $44,177 (19th in the world) and $45,565 (25th) in PPP. The UK cannot hold this position.
Several more countries could leave the EU in the next decade. Nicola Sturgeon, Scotland’s first minister and head of the Scottish Nationalist Party, and her party want to make an independent state. Ireland’s Sinfen Party has also called for independence. Former Austrian Freedom Party president Robert Hoffer also wants Austria out of the EU.