Management Research and Learning is the course module of MN7183. The research proposal for this Management Research and Learning module is on “Factors contributing to preferences for expensive English Medium Schools over Free Government Schools in Nepal”.
1.0 Background and Rationale:
From the mid-1980s, more rapidly in the 1990s, the proliferation of private English medium schools started in Nepal. Though income-poverty is/was stark in Nepal, there has not been a lack of the students to fill in the classrooms of such expensive schools both in urban centres such as in the Capital city of Kathmandu or district headquarters outside, both hills and plains. The new English medium schools did not replace the government schools, but two parallel schools’ systems continued. Media reports and some studies suggest that that rich and affluent parents, mostly government officials and businesspersons, chose English medium schools while people of low income and low strata continued sending their children to ‘free’ government schools.
The fundamental requirement is that fees are required for both types of schools or not? The fact is that fees are required for both types of schools but the fees is high in private school and it quite law in government school.
Some literature claim that the better quality as indicated by examination results, the English language proficiency of students and performance of the former students of private English Schools and the social prestige which is emanated from sending children to such schools, etc. could be the reason for the preference of private English medium schools. Some studies indicate these factors could be the preferences. However, the studies have not specifically explored how the management in private schools, as opposed to government schools, have contributed to better examination results, English language proficiency, the performance of former students, and social prestige associated with the private schools. There has not been any comparative study on the topic. Therefore, this research project.
The aim of the research is to find how does the management of both types of schools differ affecting examination results, English language proficiency of students, and led parents to choose private schools over government schools for their children?
- To identify the factors contributing to prefer English Medium Schools over the Government Schools by parents for their children.
- To identify differences between the management of Private and Government School
- To identify the management role for better examination results, English language proficiency of students and performance of the former students.
- To identify the influence of management on examination results, English language proficiency of students and performance of the former students.
4.0 Research Design and Methodology:
- The research will be carried out in Nepal focusing covering government and private schools in the districts of Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Chitwan. A total of 3 pairs of private/government schools from the same geographical locations will be chosen.
- School Records will be studied, tabulated, and analysed relating to examination results, and English language proficiency. The comparative analysis will be based on the comparison at the local levels in different places (segregated).
Mix methods will be deployed to answer the questions. This include both qualitative and quantitative. While majority of questions will be answered through qualitative methods and interviews. However, quantitative data such as the number of students with better results and their comparisons will be analysed.
5.0 Research tool:
- Primary data will be collected to analyse the present scenario.
- Open-ended interviews of parents to cover not only the result and English proficiency, but also to analyse their points relating to prestige associated and performance of former students and teachers will be done.
- A wide range of literature on schools will be reviewed for contextual and Nepal education analysis. Literature on education system of developed countries will be compared.
6.0 Validation and Reliability:
- Information collected will be validated by obtaining information from the District Education Offices. Furthermore, the study uses extend of triangulation, to avoid reliance on a limited perspective, and to strengthen the research design by enabling crosschecking
7.0 Ethical Consideration:
- Universities Ethical guidelines will be followed. Children under 18 will not be engaged in this research. All personal information will not be exposed by any means.
8.0 Research finding and presentation:
The study will provide new knowledge on how in Nepal’s specific condition, the school management contributed to better results and performance of pupils. The research will be completed in 4 months. The findings will be presented in a research report containing introduction, literature review, which also includes the conclusion.
10.0 Review of the literature
The study mechanism between the Expensive English Medium Schools and the Free Government Schools in Nepal must have vast differences. Joshi (2018) argued that private education has the factor of quality of learning along with quality of teaching. In contrast, public school education lacking in quality of learning along with quality of teaching where the influences of management are very poor.
It is very logical to have preferences of choosing Expensive English Medium Schools in Nepal. Education is like backbone and this backbone is built by the teacher. For that reason, the teacher must provide quality teaching with best teaching instrument and teaching material and those are strictly maintained by the management. Quality of learning means the way of learning by which a student is able to develop problem solving skill, interpersonal skill and develop relevant work skill. Joshi (2018) illustrated that the management of private school education focuses on quality of learning as because they initiate to practice practical implication in classroom by the teacher for developing problem solving skill, interpersonal skill and developing relevant work skill which is related to the prestige of management.
It means there have positive influences of management to better examination results, English language proficiency of students and performance of the former students. The teacher should apply all the recent updates. The teacher who teaches in private school, he is more capable of providing best teaching instrument and teaching material to the students that ensure the quality teaching. Similarly, the aspect of quality learning is also important.
Disinclination of management
Thapa (2011) argued that insignificant professional supports to teachers, motivational facts for teachers, lack of accountability in teachers and low morale have created the question of poor services in public school education. For those kinds of lacking there have huge disinclination of management and they fail to play their role properly. Education is a system which should be developed with full supporting materials, infrastructure development, quality teaching, and motivation for teachers, proper accountability and management by the government authority as well as school management committee. It is logical that when the management has no influence on quality teaching, it must adversely affect on education system. In addition to that, the unavailability of educational materials has adversely affected the quality of teaching and learning experiences.
Similarly, parent’s nonparticipation, poor infrastructure of schools, poor conditions for service, inefficiency of school management committee have also contributed to lower quality of education in public school.
High absenteeism of Teachers
Tan (2011) demonstrated that teacher absenteeism is a key governance issue in Nepal. There has been a study which is done by UNESCO in 2008. It has illustrated that there are more than 20% school teachers in public school remain absent and the rate of absenteeism in private school is almost zero. So, this statistical illustration shows the real picture of public-school teaching system in terms of Expensive English Medium Schools and the Free Government Schools in Nepal. A study illustrated that on average the teacher absenteeism was more than 20% in public school but it was significantly smaller in private school (UNESCO, 2008).
By outlining the references of UNESCO, it has been found that the negligence, irregularity, indiscipline attitude of the teachers are the reasons to avoid the services of public-school education in Nepal. It has been also found that lower standard of English language learning are the reasons why parents are against public schools rather choosing the Expensive English Medium Schools. Teachers of public have no faith in their own institution for teaching and even though public teachers prefer to admit their children in private school.
Lack of properly monitoring by the school authority
Mariko (2015) illustrated that teachers should be efficient and interested to provide quality teaching in public school. If considering all those problems having in public school for the teachers, then this scenario is totally reversed in private school education. Teachers are highly motivated in private school just because they are given all the incentives to teach the students. The rate of absenteeism is also very low because they are properly monitored by the school authority and they are accountable for the services.
Yaacob (2014) illustrated that there have no cases of indiscipline attitude of the teachers, irregularity and negligence of services because private school teachers are responsible for the duties and responsibilities and they know that their performance are evaluated each and every year for which they may get salary increment or promotion. So, there are bunch of mechanism to provide the quality teacher by the teachers of private school for which the preferences by the parents as well as teachers are involved in admitting their children in private school like Expensive English Medium Schools in Nepal.
Arrange additional educational programs
Beavis (2014) demonstrated that private schools are accountable to parents and students as they charge fees from the parents for best services. This is a general thought that private school is education is far better than public school, but this is a wrong concept. Still, the education of public school is far better, and it could be done better if they get all latest facilities of teaching from the government. It would be possible to enrich the services because all the teachers in public school are highly qualified and their educational background are so good.
Regmi (2020) demonstrated that there are some additional educational programs provided by the Private schools and they also prefer to use some reference books for improving the tactical skill as well as learning skill. Though, the cost for delivering books for library, managing extra curriculum activities, and providing the additional laboratory equipment are very high under the mechanism of private school education. In contrast, while thinking of public-school education all those additional mechanisms of delivering books for library, managing extra curriculum activities, and providing the additional laboratory equipment are almost absent in most of the public schools.
These are some of the reasons given why parents prefer expensive English medium schools instead of public-school education. This comparative scenario is totally known to all that public-school education has the background of proving quality teaching with quality learning, but they are failed just because of infrastructure support and additional education program and other supports. So, the influence of better school management is very important for ensuring quality teaching and learning in public school. Private schools have better management. However, it is well known how better management has contributed to better results and performance.
Beavis, D., 2014. Why parents choose public or private schools.. Research Development (Management Research and Learning), 12(4), pp. 478-488.
Joshi, D., 2018. Does School-Based Management Help to Improve Quality of Education? A Case of Student Achievement in Nepal. Educational Process International Journal , 7(4), pp. 228-236.
N.A. Yaacob, M. O. &. S. B., 2014. Factors Influencing Parents‟ Decision in Choosing Private Schools. Social and Behavioral Sciences (Management Research and Learning), 4(2), pp. 132-141.
Regmi, A. D. a. U., 2020. Federalisation and education in Nepal: contemporary reflections on working through change. International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education (v), 48(2), pp. 03-13.
Shiohata, M., 2015. Nepal: how best to enhance the quality of education?. Educational Development (Management Research and Learning), 2(1), pp. 01-10.
Tan, G. L. &. J., 2011. Areprivate schools more efficient than public schools?. Education economics (Management Research and Learning), 9(2), pp. 41-44.
Thapa, T. B., 2011. Total Quality Management in Education. Academic Voices A Multidisciplinary Journal , 10(4), pp. 26-31.
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